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the national convention benefited the people and the state by


'the national convention benefited the people and the state by' is an ongoing research project by David Addison stemming from the initial question: which two pieces of music would you like played at your funeral?

Submissions will be compiled and aim to inform a visual art project in 2018. Possible outcomes include a public exhibition, critical text(s), digital archive, printed publication or presentation within an audio format.

Please share with anyone you feel may be interested or benefit in somehow from tackling the question. A varied dataset of ages, locations, gender and cultural identities will help realise a more fully formed response and critical understanding. If you would like to discuss any aspects of the project in further detail then please get in touch at daddison@daddisonish.com

All submissions can be made anonymously, if contact details are provided then any personal data will be stored securely and if presented publically you will be consulted for consent before any distinguising information is released in a public facing format.

A 'song' here is defined as any piece of recorded music or other composition of sound, instrumental or otherwise. Please supply the performer(s) of your chosen version of the piece rather than original writer if different.

The misery of rural day laborers, abandoned by everyone, was often appalling. They demanded establishing a Revolutionary Tribunal to deal with supposed aristocratic plots. [42] It was necessary to develop war production, revive foreign trade, and find new resources in France itself; and time was short. Arms were distributed to the "good citizens", the faithful nucleus of the National Guard. In this sense, even if the. The remainder of the Montagnards, The Crest (la Crête de la Montagne), managed to obtain the passage of decrees favorable to the rebels. Louis XVI was classified as an enemy, alien to the body of the nation and as a "usurper". ", 464–465. Couthon, Saint-Just, Jeanbon Saint-Andre, and Prieur of the Marne formed a nucleus of resolute Montagnards who rallied Barère and Lindet, then successfully added Robespierre on 27 July, Carnot and Prieur of Cote-d'Ore on 14 August, and Collot d'Herbois and Billaud-Varenne on 6 September. It was to these latter that the revolution of 31 May (like those of 14 July and 10 August) brought a substantial benefit. [99] Eighteen of the Paris sections contested the result. The first session was held on 20 September 1792. Although the call appeared like one for insurrection it was probably just for a new demonstration, like the one in September. [15] On 13 November Robespierre stated in the Convention that a Constitution which Louis had violated himself, and which declared his inviolability, could not now be used in his defence. [69] In 1792 the National Convention agreed to delegate 3 commissaries for Saint Domingue. [5] In the whole of France, only eleven primary assemblies wanted to retain the monarchy. [36] In the name of the wretched poverty of the people, the leaders of the Enragés, with Jacques Roux at their head, called for a planned economy from a Convention which had no liking for the idea. The Commune was replaced with a Commission of Civil Administrators (commission des administrateurs civils) from the ranks of the Conventions. [29], The Constitution was submitted for popular ratification and adopted by a huge margin of more than 1,801,918 in favour to some 17,610 against. Always answering from those constitutional and foundational principles! Anchel (1911) concludes, "The work of the Convention was immense in all branches of public affairs. It was presented on 5 Messidor (23 June) and passed on 22 August 1795 (5 Fructidor of the Year III). As one of the practical precautions, no military were allowed within 60 miles of the sitting assembly and it could relocate in case of danger. Moving between the armies of the Coalition, the French could maneuver along interior lines, deploy part of their troops along the frontiers, and take advantage of the inaction of any one of their enemies to beat the others. Significant civil and political events by year. The rising was widespread rather than deep. The results of the plebiscite were made public on 10 August 1793, but the application of the Constitution, the text of which was placed in the sacred ark and laid in the debating-chamber of the Convention, was postponed until peace had been made. As soon as its political opponents had been destroyed, and its foreign enemies defeated, it would lose the chief force that kept it together. But the situation which united them in the summer of 1793 was stronger than those differences of opinion. [32], The lack of forethought displayed by the Convention during the first few days was redeemed by its vigor and skill in organizing measures of repression. There were others who openly regretted the passing of "the reign of Robespierre".[95]. It was a delicate balance to achieve, a balance that was destroyed in July by the worsening of the crisis. On 25 May the Paris Commune marched to the Convention to demand the release of these activists. ", 25. The old system of cordons lost its prestige. [58] The Terror was meant to discourage support for the enemies of the Revolution by condemning outspoken critics of the Montagnards. Trump said that the recent flareup of the coronavirus in Florida would put too many people in danger, including […] The labor of men and the value of things were subject to price controls. Acting en masse, and overwhelming the foe by sheer numbers: such were Carnot's principles. On 4 Brumaire Year IV, just before breaking up, the Convention voted a general amnesty for "deeds exclusively connected with the Revolution".[100]. They knew the art of insurrection by heart and to bring down muscadins was easier than the sans-culottes. The Montagnards put the debate on the ideological level. They were now no more than victims or spectators. The departments resisted the idea of centralization. [98], But the Convention had not taken into account those Paris sections who were against Two-Thirds decrees and failed to provide precise vote figures: 47 Parisian sections had rejected the decrees. The bitter enmity soon reduced the Convention to a state of limbo. Equality was certainly confirmed, but within the limits of civil equality. How has the national level of government benefited from the fact that the states have been allowed to do most of the fundamental governing of the American people? The Republic was condemned to massive inflation and its currency was ruined. [88], Whatever reasons the conspirators had behind 9 Thermidor, the events afterwards went beyond their intentions. In July 1793 the nation appeared to be on the point of falling apart. Part II General principles Article 5 State immunity A State enjoys immunity, in respect of itself and its property, from the jurisdiction of the courts of another State subject to the provisions of the present Convention. Its victims belonged to the classes which hated the Revolution or lived in the regions where rebellion was most serious. [55], The execution of the leaderships of both rival factions caused some to become disillusioned. The purge ended with most of the nobles excluded. On 13 July, Charlotte Corday murdered the sans-culotte idol Jean-Paul Marat. Article II stipulated: "All members presently active in the Convention are re-eligible. Andress, David, and Covo, "Race, Slavery, and Colonies in the French Revolution. The key here is that the delegates … [47], At the summit of the apparatus of the Terror sat the Committee of General Security, the state's second organization. ", 6. [91][note 6], The destruction of the system of revolutionary government eventually brought about the end of the 'Economic Terror'. Three days later the corollary that "the French republic is one and indivisible" was added to guard against federalism. The difficulties were tremendous. [83], So long as it remained united, the Committee was virtually invulnerable, but it had scarcely attained the apogee of its power before signs of internal conflict appeared. [89], They were speedily disabused of this notion. President Donald Trump announced Thursday that he would cancel the in-person mass gathering of the Republican National Convention (RNC) scheduled for August in Jacksonville, Florida. [86] Bickering broke out on the Committee of Public Safety, with Carnot describing Robespierre and Saint-Just as "ridiculous dictators" and Collot making veiled attacks on the "Incorruptible". For the most people it was the constitution of 1793—seen as a liberating utopia—which represented the solution to all evils. [68] The French showed a much greater willingness to act on the issue of slavery when the threat of a war with Spain seemed imminent. [89], The stability of the government was weakening. The crisis was greatly aggravated by famine. [66] This was shot down by the National Convention as the majority of their population were slaves and thus had no rights as citizens and contributed nothing to representative population. [35], The summer of 1793 saw sans-culotte disturbances reach a peak under a double banner: price-fixing and terror. [according to whom?] The Hebertists incited sans-culottes to demand stringent measures, and at first the Committee did prove conciliatory. [35] The Committee had to set itself above all, and choose those popular demands which were most suitable for achieving the Assembly's aims: to crush the enemies of the Republic and dash the last hopes of the aristocracy. Barras reference to "Faubourg Saint-Antoin whose attachment to the cause of liberty is well known" in subsequent report offers curious commentary to the official evolution since journees of prairial. [97], On 23 September the results were announced: the constitution was accepted by 1,057,390 votes, with 49,978 against. 4 Prairial Year III is one of the crucial dates of the revolutionary period. Nice was occupied and Savoy proclaimed its union with France. But since the Committee did not ensure that it was respected (except for bread), they would have been duped had they not been benefiting from the favorable conditions that a great war always offers the labor force. ", 26. Those delegates are selected in different ways, depending on the party and the state. [39], At last France saw a government take shape. The Convention declared itself permanent. Insurrection of 31 May –& § 32;2 June 1793, Ministers of the French National Convention, Du 2 au 10 septembre 1792: élection des députés à la Convention nationale, "Napoleon and Counter-Revolutionary Royalists – 13 Vendémiaire Year 4 – Napoleon & Empire", Presidents of the National Convention: 1792–1795, National Convention pamphlets and documents, Last cabinet of the French Second Republic, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, Provisional Government of the French Republic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=National_Convention&oldid=991026933, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2015, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2015, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Andress, David, and Manuel Covo.

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