'contraception in the 18th century' is an ongoing research project by David Addison stemming from the initial question: which two pieces of music would you like played at your funeral?
Submissions will be compiled and aim to inform a visual art project in 2018. Possible outcomes include a public exhibition, critical text(s), digital archive, printed publication or presentation within an audio format.
Please share with anyone you feel may be interested or benefit in somehow from tackling the question. A varied dataset of ages, locations, gender and cultural identities will help realise a more fully formed response and critical understanding. If you would like to discuss any aspects of the project in further detail then please get in touch at firstname.lastname@example.org
All submissions can be made anonymously, if contact details are provided then any personal data will be stored securely and if presented publically you will be consulted for consent before any distinguising information is released in a public facing format.
A 'song' here is defined as any piece of recorded music or other composition of sound, instrumental or otherwise. Please supply the performer(s) of your chosen version of the piece rather than original writer if different.
And in 1776, a London advertizer described condoms as “implements of safety which secure the health of my customers” (Lawrence Stone, 266). Boswell’s London Journal. The will to space out pregnancies came also from men who wanted to prevent their wives from suffering or dying while giving birth and new sexual behaviors were adopted. I was with my surgeon this morning, who declared I had got a strong infection, and that she from whom I had it could not be ignorant of it”. How were bodies gendered in the 18th Century? London: Hooper and Wigstead, 1796. Change ), Body and Gender in the Eighteenth Century. And Onan knew that the seed should not be his; and it came to pass, when he went in unto his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest that he should give seed to his brother. Social institutions such as the church and the state have exerted their influence as effectively as doctors, population theorists, and the early pioneers of the feminist movement. “If the party … would not conceive, take one paper of powders in a glass of warm ale, every morning after the man has been with her, and shall be out of danger.”. One of the methods used to space out pregnancies was breast-feeding. – HARVEY, A. D. Sex in Georgian England: Attitudes and Prejudices from the 1720s to the 1820s. Relevance. TURN OF THE CENTURY BIRTH CONTROL "By 1900, white women, showing their ability to cut their fertility in half over the century, averaged 3.56 children. This is far less than “natural” fecundity. They were a common gynecological treatment in the late 1800s and early 1900s. – YOUSSEF, H. “The History of the condom.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, no. In 18th century women after giving child birth were advised to breastfeed child.Lactation has a contraceptive effect while breastfeeding a woman has no menstruation which makes her infertile for some months.Later,this became a sort of fashion to breastfeed child. This is partly thanks to the American imagination, which paints the Puritans—the first English settlers on American soil to focus on creating communities and families—as strict, foreboding people, incapable of joy or laughter, let alone sexual pleasure. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. These, of course, included the ancient methods of coitus interruptus —or … Condoms became more commonly known after Gabriele Falloppio, an anatomist and physician of the sixteenth century, wrote a treatise about syphilis and proved condoms prevented the disease. Wearing testicles of weasels was once considered a way to prevent pregnancy. For most French people, at least 10 years of reproductive life were thus “lost” to late marriages. BRITISH CONTRACEPTION IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, MALE MAKE-UP IN EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ENGLAND. On the caricature below we can see a women in a “condom warehouse” is blowing up a condom to make sure that it is not damaged and a man who appears to be a clergyman is blessing the newly frabricated condoms. Contraception is not an invention of modern times, nor is it a purely personal matter. To preserve their health women were advised not to have too many children and to space out pregnancies as much as possible. Men also wanted fewer children for economic reasons as raising a child cost a lot of money and they were not assured that the children they spent money for would survive. But men mostly used contraceptive method the preserve their own health as they tended to have mistresses and did not want to have venereal diseases and illegitimate children. 1796 (Lawrence stone, 22 image) “The Fashionable Mamma, or The Convenience of Modern Dress” Caricature. 1930s Crepe rubber was replaced by latex. Contraceptive Technology. Other techniques, however, required a scientific understanding of the mechanisms of conception. And the thing which he did displeased the LORD: wherefore he slew him also.”. – GROSE, Francis. It started when they began to work in their mid-teens and continued to their mid- to late-20s, when they married. Privacy: Concealing the Eighteenth-Century Self. These devices were not only used as a contraceptive method, they actually were associated with vice because they were mostly used for “extra-marital affairs”, men used them as a protection against venereal deseases. Chrispy. 9 years ago. Favorite Answer. have suggested that as much as 75 percent of this dropping fertility can be explained by active fertility control, including abortion and birth control techniques" (Leavitt 19). Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Rousseau, for reasons independent from contraception, strongly advocated breastfeeding in his very influential Emile (published 1761) and the practice soon became fashionable among women of the nobility and bourgeoisie as well. Social institutions such as the church and the state have exerted their influence as effectively as doctors, population theorists, and the early pioneers of the feminist movement. During the eighteenth century contraception was mostly used by the aristocracy and the urban elite (Lawrence Stone, 263) and… 18th Century Contraception - Wonders & Marvels By Catherine Delors Married women, in the 17th and 18th centuries, would become pregnant on average five … SIGLELD:8318.1714(SSRC-G--00/23/0019) / BLDSC - British Library Document Supply CentreGBUnited Kingdo Contraception is not an invention of modern times, nor is it a purely personal matter. Greek medical literature reported a hollow tube inserted through the … New Haver, CT: Yale University Press, 1950. However the method is not completely effective. Records detailing the use of birth control in Egypt date as far back as 1850 BCE. E-mail: email@example.com! " In an era long before chemical or hormonal contraceptive technology, Civil War-era Americans used the same methods known for centuries throughout the early modern world to prevent pregnancy. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. The tremendous social stigma attached to out-of-wedlock births made them accidents to be avoided at all costs. Indeed some semen always escapes from the Cowper’s glands before ejaculation, so that the risk of pregnancy still exists (Vern L. Bullough, 74). Lv 7. Peasant women in particular nursed their children –and served as wetnurses to others– well into toddlerhood, which allowed them to space out their pregnancies. Once women married and gave birth to children, the most widely available birth control technique was breastfeeding. Bibliography– Planned Parenthood of America. For one thing, people married relatively late. But these methods were used by a minority only. The upper classes also used barrier devices, such as sealskin condoms and sponges dipped in vinegar or other acidic liquids. Childbirth in the 19th Century Even the illiterate knew empirically about the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO, 2001. The Reverend Ralph Josselin spent one third of is £160 a year on the education of his ten children but only five of them still lived when their parents died (Lawrence Stone, 264). contraception to be ‘virtually unthinkable’ until the eighteenth centu-ry, when ‘sexual pleasure was freed from the constraints of religion’.1 In England, the seventeenth century has been frequently associated with increased repression ‘over sexual morality and family life’.2 “BOSWELL. This method consisted of the withdrawal of the husband before ejaculation and is said to depend on “extraordinary measures of self-control” (Lawrence Stone, 262). Though in the Bible Onan is punished for practicing coitus interruptus, in the eighteenth century because of “the collapse of moral Puritanism” which was at the origin of the released libido, the Bible had lost some of its strength and withdrawal was no longer seen as a sin (Lawrence Stone, 263). In the 4th century B.C., Plato and Aristotle advocated a one-child family. Harlots: The real-life courtesan whose virginity sold for £9,000 in 18th century London It was perhaps inevitable that Charlotte Hayes would become a prostitute. For an assignment a lot of detail please!! True, nobles married much earlier, generally as teenagers, but they represented only about 1% of the population, a tiny minority. Contraception is not an invention of modern times, nor is it a purely personal matter. Moreover this post-natal infertility made it more difficult for women to conceive once the lactational amenorrhea was over which made of this birth control method a very popular one in the eighteenth century. It was to prevent this waste of money than families chose to have fewer children. Married women, in the 17th and 18th centuries, would become pregnant on average five or six times. In the eighteenth century condoms were not easy to purchase as they were mostly sold in big European Cities such as Paris and London (Lawrence Stone, 334). Britain in the eighteenth century witnessed “a release of the libido” (Lawrence Stone, 327) due to the Enlightenment’s idea of the pursuit of happiness which made of sexual expression, pleasure and passion essential elements of life. In the eighteenth century, women could have a lot of children – Queen Charlotte for instance had fifteen children with her husband King George III – and “the interval between births was between twenty-four and thirty months” (Lawrence Stone, 52). 2009. Birth control in the 18th century Married women, in the 17th and 18th centuries, would become pregnant on average five or six times. One of the reasons for the development of contraception was economic, for upper classes had larger families than lower classes and the elite wanted to reduce births because of the cost of raising a child. During the 1400s, drinking raw onion juice was a trick of the Italians. A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue. … Social institutions such as the church and the state have exerted their influence as effectively as doctors, population theorists, and the early pioneers of the feminist movement. Not about brothels but speaks to what was available. Contraception: Civil War Style should answer some questions. As we can see on the satirical print below, wealthy women no longer gave their children to wet nurses so that they could be seen topless and feeding their babies in their richest dresses which made of breastfeeding a more fashionable than maternal behavior. To many people, the facts about abortion’s legality in early America can be surprising. – BULLOUGH, Vern L. The Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Acidic fruits and vegetables often played a role in early birth control. – ALLEN, Paul. The Scottish lawyer James Boswell frequently had to use condoms because of his libertine way of life. I was so rash as to trust her, and had a very agreable congress.” (James Boswell, 262). During the flowering of Arabic medicine in the 10th century, a variety of contraceptive recommendations were detailed, particularly in the works of Al-Razi (Rhazes, d. 923 or 924 AD, Quintessence of Experience), All ibn Abbas (d. 994 AD, The Royal Book), and Avicenna (Ibn Sina, d. 1037 AD). By E.R.B. This popular perception is drawn partly from books such as Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, which portrays Puritan society as deeply religious, dark, and unforgiving… During the same period Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi documented the use of pessaries made of rock salt for women for whom pregnancymay be dangerous. Does the issue of contraception pal a part in European discourse on castration during the 17th and 18th centuries. These repeated pregnancies were very dangerous and many women died giving birth. Gibson and London (UK) Social Science Research Council. 1843 Vulcanisation of rubber developed by Goodyear and Hancock, and rubber condoms replaced skin condoms. In 1789 France, the average age of first-time couples was 26.5 for brides and 28.5 for grooms. A very short book excerpt. 12 Answers. A condom trade greatly developed in London during the century and was mostly owned by “a matron of the name of Philips” (Francis Grose) and Mrs Perkins (H. Youssef, 227). Also, by this time the medical care of women was passing from midwives to male doctors, most of whom did not respect a woman's right to terminate or prevent pregnancy. Links would be lovely if included! Nowadays this method is still used by some women but it is not as popular as it was during the eighteenth century as women are less aware of it and as it is a very restricting way of contraception. ( Log Out / Contraception in the 16th century Lesley Smith HISTORY OF CONTRACEPTION J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2006; 32 (1): 59Ð60 Tutbury Castle, Tutbury, UK Lesley Smith, Curator Correspondence to: Lesley Smith, Tutbury Castle, Tutbury, Staffordshire DE13 9JF, UK. Social institutions such as the church and the state have exerted their influence as effectively as doctors, population theorists, and the early pioneers of the feminist movement. – MEYER SPACKS, Patricia. That’s one technique ancient Egyptian women used to prevent pregnancy. In 1763 James Boswell had a relationship with an actress named Louisa who gave him one of the numerous venereal diseases he had during the course of his life. Page 14. Most methods involved covering the “mouth of the womb” with some sort of sticky barrier to physically block any hopeful sperm. Oxford, New Internationalist, 2007. So what was happening? Contraception in the eighteenth century became more common but mainly in families from the elite. He described a number of pessaries, including elephant dung, cabbages and pitch, used alone or in combination. People needed contraceptive methods to trim the size of families. Abstract. There were actually two types of birth control, but neither one could be considered exactly dependable. During the eighteenth century contraception was mostly used by the aristocracy and the urban elite (Lawrence Stone, 263) and just like today contraceptive methods could be used by women and men, but did both sexes used contraceptives for the same reasons? ( Log Out / Women in the 18th century practiced periodical abstinence if their husbands let them. lack of medical knowledge. "One of the best reads of the year." Boswell did not think it was usefull to wear an “armour” with her but when he discovered she had transmitted him a desease she told she actualy had one three years before but that she no longer had any symptoms for several months and thought that it was cured. Before the birth control movement, which was closely tied to the feminist movement, women relied on homemade oral contraceptives made from herbs, spices, or even heavy metals; homemade barrier methods made from animal guts; and various other sperm-blocking ingredients that were placed directly in or on the genitals to prevent pregnancy. Condoms could be used several times and men only had to wash them after each use (Vern L. Bullough, 82). One step forward and two steps back for contraception In his Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, Francis Grose defined “cundum” as: “The dried gut of the sheep, worn by men in the act of coition, to prevent venereal infection”. Among them were condoms. In 1789 France, the average age of first-time … 9 forms of birth control used in ancient times . When primitive women understood the advantages of conception control, they tried, when possible, to use contraception. As we can see on the following picture, eighteenth century condoms were made of “sheep gut and were secured to the wearer at the base with a red ribbon, which was tied around the scrotum” (Lawrence Stone, 334). Popularly expressed, this amounted to 'Hogamus higamus, men are polygamous/Higamus hogamus, women are monogamous', with the added detail that 'the majority of women (happily for them) are not very much … The physical barrier and the acid from the fruit made for an effective double-contraceptive punch. By mid-century the Victorian conjunction of moralism and scientific investigation produced ideas of orthodox human sexuality based on a combination of social and biological ideas. Married women, in the 17th and 18th centuries, would become pregnant on average five or six times. Pornographic novels (a thriving genre in pre-revolutionary France) in particular Thérèse Philosophe, extolled the virtues of the withdrawal method. In the early 10th century the Persian Polym… Prior to the 1820s, condoms enjoyed a long history, not so much as contraceptive devices, but as a means to prevent the transmission of disease. Britain in the eighteenth century witnessed “a release of the libido” (Lawrence Stone, 327) due to the Enlightenment’s idea of the pursuit of happiness which made of sexual expression, pleasure and passion essential elements of life. The whim of doing it there with the Thames rolling below us amused me much.” (James Boswell, 255), “…so I sallied the Streets and just at the bottom of our own, I picked up a fresh agreable young Girl called Alice Gibbs. ( Log Out / It was not until the mid 20th century that the advent of the birth control pill successfully controlled pregnancy and birth. During the 18th century, the womanizer Casanova was said to have fashioned a cervical cap for his love interests from a pulped lemon half. (Francis Grose). Other popular contraceptive methods called barrier devices were used by the upper classes. . Well-fed women could profit from this temporary infertility for about six months and women suffering from malnutrition were infertile for about eighteen months (Lawrence Stone, 52). And, in the 18th century, ... For current contraception advice visit the NHS contraception guide. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2003. This means that they kept record of their menstrual patterns and other physiological signs and selectively abstained when they were at their peak for fertility. – HATCHER Robert A. and others. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. :) Answer Save. French historian who linked the beginning of family planning in the 18th century with a greater appreciation of the welfare of children. – STONE, Lawrence. Unique research conducted by Clelia Duel Mosher in the late-nineteenth century has remarkably survived to modern times. Stem pessaries are intrauterine devices (IUDs). It is even referred to in the Bible: “And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto thy brother’s wife, and marry her, and raise up seed to thy brother. This is far less than “natural” fecundity. This is far less than “natural” fecundity. ( Log Out / . If you think pausing for a condom kills the mood, you should try rubbing crocodile dung on your cervix. Madam, I have had no connection with any woman but you these two months. – BOSWELL, James.  : 86–8,92 The condom market grew rapidly, however. Women were advised to breast-feed themselves their children by doctors so that breast-feeding became a sort of fashion (Lawrence Stone, 248). “A History of Birth Control Methods” New York. Indeed lactation has a contraceptive effect called “lactational amenorrhea” (Robert A. Hatcher and others, 407) because when breast-feeding, a woman has no menstruation and the ovulation is postponed which makes her infertile for some months. Women could also buy medicines sold on London Markets; these recipes could be used as a contraceptive or for abortive purposes. To prevent pregnancy, Arabian women would eat mashed pomegranate mixed with rock salt and alum. London: Penguin Books, 1977. So what was happening? Not every oral or liquid contraceptive method was deadly, although perhaps the effectiveness is questionable. Now in trade paperback. The Family, Sex and Marriage in the England1500 – 1800. Thus, during the 1700s and 1800s condoms were used primarily for the prevention of venereal diseases but not as a contraception tool. -Associated Press, by historical novelist Catherine Delors, author of For the King, Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License, An Interview of Susanne Dunlap, author of THE SPIRIT OF FIRE, THE GHOST OF MADISON AVENUE, by Nancy Bilyeau, An interview of Nancy Bilyeau, author of THE CHALICE, The Berkeley Square Affair, by Teresa Grant. The upper classes had enough money to raise their children but at the time a more child-orientated society developed and families started to limit the number of births because education was expensive and children did not always live long. Historians . Besides crocodile refuse, Egyptian women also use… Contraception is not an invention of modern times, nor is it a purely personal matter. (Quality control in condom warehouse, 1744). In the late 9th to early 10th century, the Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi documented coitus interruptus, preventing ejaculation and the use of pessaries to block the cervix as birth control methods. 18th century onwards Condoms were made from animal intestines. London, Phoenix Press, 2001. In the 17th century what did they do for birth control? 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