'what caused the great lakes storm of 1913' is an ongoing research project by David Addison stemming from the initial question: which two pieces of music would you like played at your funeral?
Submissions will be compiled and aim to inform a visual art project in 2018. Possible outcomes include a public exhibition, critical text(s), digital archive, printed publication or presentation within an audio format.
Please share with anyone you feel may be interested or benefit in somehow from tackling the question. A varied dataset of ages, locations, gender and cultural identities will help realise a more fully formed response and critical understanding. If you would like to discuss any aspects of the project in further detail then please get in touch at email@example.com
All submissions can be made anonymously, if contact details are provided then any personal data will be stored securely and if presented publically you will be consulted for consent before any distinguising information is released in a public facing format.
A 'song' here is defined as any piece of recorded music or other composition of sound, instrumental or otherwise. Please supply the performer(s) of your chosen version of the piece rather than original writer if different.
Such support does not indicate endorsement by the Government of Ontario of the contents of this material. “It was blowing a gale from the north and blinding snow, and a big sea running over us from stem to stern. With over 12 ships destroyed and 31 crippled the storm claimed more lives than all of the other major Great Lakes maritime disasters combined.  When the cold air from these storms moves over the lakes, it is warmed by the waters below and picks up a spin. One hundred years later, NOAA commemorates the Storm of 1913 not only for the pivotal role it plays in the history of the Great Lakes … Created by two huge converging storm fronts, the vicious blizzard lasted from November 7th to November 10th, tearing through Ontario, the Midwest, and of course, the Great Lakes. Gusts of 90 mph (140 km/h) were reported off Harbor Beach, Michigan. When the Great Lakes cease to sleep. The financial loss in vessels alone was nearly US $5 million (or about $129,343,000 in today's dollars). When November skies turn bruised and grey . In the late afternoon of November 10, an unknown vessel was spotted floating upside-down in about 60 feet (18 m) of water on the eastern coast of Michigan, within sight of Huronia Beach and the mouth of the St. Clair River. Hurricane-force winds of 90 miles-per-hour, towering waves over 35 feet, and whiteout blizzard conditions inundated the Great Lakes between November 7 and November 10, 1913. Technically a hurricane, the storm was triggered in part by a regular phenomenon known as a November gale, or “ November Witch ,” when cold air coming down from Canada meets warmer air coming up from the Gulf of Mexico over the vast expanse of the Great Lakes. After 100 years, the definitive book about the Great Storm of 1913 has finally been written. The storm started out as two storms that converged over the comparatively warm waters of the lakes to create a superstorm like nothing seen before or since. Within a short amount of time winds strong enough to blow carriages on their sides and 35 foot high waves along the shores of the Great Lakes were causing serious damage. The weather had been unseasonably warm for early November, but two major storm fronts converging over the warm lake water (also known as a November Witch), suddenly brewed up the storm … A recently completed US$100,000 Chicago breakwater, intended to protect the Lincoln Park basin from storms, was swept away in a few hours. List of victims of the 1913 Great Lakes storm @ rootsweb.com. The storm blew onto Lake Superior on November 6, 1913, and finished with lakes Huron and Erie seven days later. The storm included 35 foot waves and northerly hurricane force wind gusts. This resulted in an explosive increase in northerly wind speeds and swirling snow. Averill: The storm peaked on Sunday, November 10, 1913, and by midweek, people throughout the Great Lakes region were starting to grapple with the aftermath. “If ever there were a ‘perfect storm’ on the Great Lakes, it would be the one that pounded the lakes from November 7 through November 10, 1913, leaving a wake of destruction unlike anything ever seen on fresh water at any point in recorded history.” The storm lasted for four days, during which the region endured 90 mile per hour winds and waves reaching 35 feet in height. "The witch of November.". The storm came to be known as The Big Blow and The Great Storm of 1913. This frozen hurricane of 1913 is still unprecedented in its scope, destruction and strength. Updated Apr 03, 2019; Posted Nov 12, 2013 . Between November 6 and November 11, 1913 marked the deadliest storm in the history of the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes storm, however, raged for more than 16 hours, with an average speed of 60 mph (97 km/h), and frequent bursts of more than 70 mph (110 km/h). Hurricane-force winds of 90 miles-per-hour, towering waves over 35 feet, and whiteout blizzard conditions inundated the Great Lakes between November 7 and November 10, 1913. Fueled by the warm lake water, these powerful storms may remain over the Great Lakes for days. Hurricane Katrina. Digging Deeper. Personal experiences of Captains of the Lake Fleet. A 22-inch (56 cm) snowfall in Cleveland, Ohio, put stores out of business for two days. On Friday, the weather forecast in the Port Huron Times-Herald of Port Huron, Michigan, described the storm as "moderately severe." The list is divided into two sections: mariners and others. This also meant less snowfall, both because of the fast motion of the storm and the lack of lake effect snow. "After 100 years, the definitive book about the Great Storm of 1913 has finally been written. Wind measurement tower circa 1913 In November of 1913 the Great Lakes were struck by a massive storm system combining whiteout blizzard conditions and hurricane force winds. Article content. The L.C. Then the north winds bring their icy rain and churn the waters deep. Save your favourite destinations, activities, and articles to start creating your very own personalized Great Lakes Guide. Masters also stated that the wind often blew in directions opposite to the waves below.  The Milwaukee, Wisconsin harbor lost its entire south breakwater and much of the surrounding South Park area that had been recently renovated.. First, there was a very strong “clipper” system moving along the United States/Canadian border. Twelve ships sank, 30 other vessels crippled. Frontal mechanisms, referred to then as "squall lines", were not yet understood. The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, historically referred to as the "Big Blow,"[A] the "Freshwater Fury," or the "White Hurricane," was a blizzard with hurricane-force winds that devastated the Great Lakes Basin in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada from November 7 through November 10, 1913.  During the autumn months, two major weather tracks converge over the area. , From 8:00 p.m. to midnight, the storm became what modern meteorologists call a "weather bomb". Without the warm lake waters, it lost strength quickly. Perhaps the most well-known Great Lakes shipwreck of all, the SS Edmund Fitzgerald, sunk on November 10th, 1975. “I believe if we had stayed [at the Soo] much longer we would have lost her on account of these hatch fasteners, so I wish to recommend to you that you install a hatch fastener like the one on the Ericsson...These wedges are unsafe for this class of vessel, as you can not go out on deck to look after them in bad weather.”. Retrieved 2007-04-10. “At 6:20 of the 9th, when probably about off Sturgeon Point, encountered very heavy seas, which stove in the port side of the forward end of the after cabin, flooding the mess room, kitchen and letting a quantity of water into the engine room, and also carrying away three hatch strong-backs. Call it what you will—the White Hurricane, the Freshwater Fury, the Big Blow, or the Great Lakes Storm of 1913—this natural disaster was the most deadly and destructive to ever hit the Great Lakes. Claris Explosion Vs Great Storm 1521 Words | 7 Pages. Gale wind flags were raised at more than a hundred ports, but were ignored by many ship captains. Lake Superior claimed the Henry B. Smith and the Leafield. In fact, it is generally agreed that the November 1913 storm (which concentrated more on Lake Huron for its death and destruction) was the greatest ever to strike the Great Lakes. On November 9, 1913, The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, the most destructive natural disaster ever to hit the North American lakes, destroyed 19 ships and killed more than 250 people. — Captain Selee, captain of the steamer McDougall on Lake Superior. Gordon Lightfoot puts it best in his song about the tragedy, “The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald:”, “The lake, it is said, never gives up her dead , In retrospect, weather forecasters of the time did not have enough data or understanding of atmospheric dynamics to predict or comprehend the events of Sunday, November 9. This low had formed overnight, so was absent from Friday's weather map. The forecast predicted increased winds and falling temperatures over the next 24 hours. This was the result of the storm's cyclonic motion, a phenomenon rarely seen on the Great Lakes. Analysis of the storm and its impact on humans, engineering structures, and the landscape led to better forecasting and faster responses to storm warnings, stronger construction (especially of marine vessels), and improved preparedness. At 10:00 a.m., Coast Guard stations and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Weather Bureau offices at Lake Superior ports raised white pennants above square red flags with black centers, indicating a storm warning with northwesterly winds. Great Lakes Hurricane of 1913: Overview This November marks the 100 year anniversary of one of the most infamous storms in the recorded history of the Great Lakes. Article content. The Weather Bureau had issued the first of its twice-daily reports at approximately 8:00 a.m.; it did not send another report to Washington, D.C. until 8:00 p.m. The lake's shape allowed northerly winds to increase unchecked, because of the lower surface friction of water compared to land, and the wind following the lake's long axis. The ship eventually sank, and it was not until early Saturday morning, November 15, that it was finally identified as Charles S. Price. In the late fall, dry and frigid air from Canada billows southward. The following shipwreck casualties have been documented:, Of the twelve ships that sank in the storm, three have never been found: Leafield, Plymouth and James Carruthers. The following quotations are regarding the Great Lakes Storm of 1913, a blizzard with hurricane-force winds that devastated the Great Lakes basin in the United States Midwest and the Canadian province of Ontario from November 7 to November 10, 1913. Telephone poles had been broken, and power cables lay in tangled masses. THE GREAT LAKES STORM OF 1913. Waldo, grounded and iced over, following the Great Lakes Storm of 1913. The storm, an extratropical cyclone, originated as the convergence of two major storm fronts, fueled by the lakes' relatively warm waters—a seasonal process called a "November gale". Page 1 of 2 - About 11 essays. Though tragic, it revolutionized storm forecasting and communications on the Great Lakes. Surface observations were collected only twice daily at stations around the country, and by the time these data were collected and hand-drawn maps created, the information lagged actual weather conditions by hours.. Technically, the Great Lakes Storm of 1913 was an extratropical cyclone, caused by the convergence of two major storm fronts (see weather map in … learn 10 easy steps that you can take to protect the Great Lakes, Remembering the Great Lakes Storm of 1913. Travelers were forced to take shelter and wait for things to clear. The Great Lakes are unimaginably vast. Lake masters recounted that waves reached at least 35 feet (11 m) in height. Some of the ships lost in the 1913 Great Lakes storm. From introducing invasive species to using road salt, humans are altering the Great Lakes in profound ways. Minnich, Jerry The Wisconsin Almanac, p. 218, "The White Hurricane: The worst storm in Great Lakes history", The Great Storm of 1913: Vessels Totally Destroyed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Man discovers Lake Huron shipwreck missing since 1913", "100 years after ore boat disappeared in Lake Superior storm, searchers locate wreck", "Harbor Beach, MI (Lake Huron) Fishing Tug Searchlight Lost, Apr 1907", A first-person account of the storm, from a 1914 article in the. All shipping was halted on Monday and part of Tuesday along the St. Lawrence River around Montreal, Quebec.. The storm that began brewing on November 6, 1913 was more than just a storm. The L.C. The White Hurricane followed the next day, and was the deadliest and most intense phase of the Great Lakes storm. , The deadliest and most destructive natural disaster to hit the lakes in recorded history, the Great Lakes Storm killed more than 250 people, destroyed 19 ships, and stranded 19 others. “The bell rang for supper at 3:45 P.M., which was prepared and the tables set, when a gigantic sea mounted our stern, flooding the fantail, sending torrents of water through the passageways on each side of the cabin, concaving the cabin, breaking the windows in the after cabin, washing our provisions out of the refrigerator and practically destroying them all, leaving us with one ham and a few potatoes...Volumes of water came down on the engine through the upper skylights, and at times there were from four to six feet of water in the cabin.”, November storms are notorious on the Great Lakes, having led to countless shipwrecks and fatalities over the years. The worst damage was done on Lake Huron as numerous ships scrambled for shelter along its southern end. In a way, the storm was a wakeup call. Normally, a storm so intense should run its course after about four hours, but this blast lasted for over 16 hours. Great Lakes Storm of 1913; Great Lakes Storm of 1913. It was four days of chaos that packed blizzard conditions as well as hurricane-force winds. Waldo, grounded and iced over, following the Great Lakes Storm of 1913. Twelve ships sank, 30 other vessels crippled. , The storm was first noticed on Thursday, November 6, on the western side of Lake Superior, moving rapidly toward northern Lake Michigan. An estimated equivalent of $117 million today was lost in ships and cargo. It does not include the three victims from the freighter William Nottingham, who volunteered to leave the ship on a lifeboat in search of assistance. Brown, 2002, p 245, Oregon State University. In Lake Huron, the Isaac M. Scott, Charles S. Price, Argus, Hydrus, John A. McGean, James Carruthers, Regina, and Wexford went down. Nicknamed the “White Hurricane” and the ‘Freshwater Fury” the 1913 storm remains the most devastating natural disaster to ever strike the Great Lakes. The world class “Hunter” display from the War of 1812. Like other historic storms, the Storm of 1913 and its tragic loss of lives and vessels was a result of a number of factors combining to create a “perfect storm,” if you’ll pardon my use of Sebastian Junger’s expression. Intense winds ravage the lakes and surrounding shores, severely eroding and flooding the shorelines. I have recreated the newspaper articles from that storm, leaving the format and any typographical errors intact, where possible, to preserve the way they were reported. Along the shoreline, blizzards shut down traffic and communication, causing hundreds of thousands of dollars in damage. ), Deedler, William R. (Weather Historian, WFO Pontiac/Detroit Mi), GenDisasters.com; Great Lake Locations: "Great Gale of 1913" (Nov 1913), Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers, Major snow and ice events in the United States, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Lakes_Storm_of_1913&oldid=998937318, 1913 natural disasters in the United States, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 24 in (61 cm) of snow recorded in some areas, $2,332,000 (1913) for vessels totally lost, $830,900 (1913) for vessels that became constructive total losses, $620,000 (1913) for vessels stranded but returned to service, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 18:43. Each individual has hidden text which details all sources of information on that person. Get Great Lakes hidden gems and insider information delivered straight to your inbox! altering the Great Lakes in profound ways. The storm came to be known as The Big Blow and The Great Storm of 1913. During a November gale in 1975, the giant ore bulk carrier SS Edmund Fitzgerald sank suddenly with all hands, without a distress signal. Five have never been found. It was unusual and unprecedented and it may be centuries before such a combination of forces may be experienced again.". When these contrasting airs meet, they create ideal conditions for storms in the Great Lakes region. An additional 17 inches (43 cm) of snow were dumped on Cleveland, Ohio that day, filling the streets with snowdrifts 6 feet (1.8 m) high.  During the Big Blow of 1905, 27 wooden vessels were lost. — Excerpt from the 1913 Lake Carriers' Association report. This proved to be a serious problem: the storm would have the better part of a day to build up hurricane forces before the Bureau headquarters in Washington, D.C., would have detailed information.. Historically, the lakes have at times been a fierce adversary to those who depended on them for survival. The project took half a decade. The southern and western waters of Lake Huron saw the most shipwrecks. Power was out for several days across Michigan and Ontario, cutting off telephone and telegraph communications. From Nov. 9 through Nov. 11, 1913, the storm hit the eastern Great Lakes region with hurricane-force winds, whiteout conditions, freezing spray and massive waves. We’ve become so adept at using the Great Lakes for our own ends that we’ve become a threat to them. But in November on the Great Lakes, this was no tropical storm. The storm was centered over eastern Lake Superior, covering the entire lake basin. See Brown, 2002, pp. The storm had several long-term consequences. In the aftermath of the Great Storm of Nov.1913 between Amberley and Kettle Point, the wreckage and debris of eight ships that had gone down with all hands streamed ashore. By then, the storm was centered over the upper Mississippi Valley and had caused moderate to brisk southerly winds with warmer weather over the lakes. The Plymouth was believed to have been located off of Poverty island, but there is no evidence of the wreck being the Plymouth. Being shorter in length than waves ordinarily formed by gales, they occurred in rapid succession, with three waves frequently striking in succession. The most recent discovery is Hydrus, which was located in mid-2015. " By then, the storm was centered over the upper Mississippi Valley and had caused moderate to brisk southerly winds with warmer weather over the lakes. Brave sailors know the hazards and keep a watchful eye.  Among the debris cast up by the storm was wreckage of the fish tug Searchlight lost in April 1907. Other special events will be scheduled. The men disappeared into the near-freezing waters below. In the aftermath of the Great Storm of Nov.1913 between Amberley and Kettle Point, the wreckage and debris of eight ships that had gone down with all hands streamed ashore. By Tuesday, the storm was rapidly moving across eastern Canada. In its own era, however, the Great Lakes Storm of 1913 highlighted the shortcomings of storm forecasting and ship construction. The storm emphasized how important increased weather forecasting was in the Great Lakes region. Great Lakes Hurricane of 1913: Overview This November marks the 100 year anniversary of one of the most infamous storms in the recorded history of the Great Lakes. ) The front page of that day's Port Huron Times-Herald extra edition read, "BOAT IS PRICE — DIVER IS BAKER — SECRET KNOWN". Historically, storms of such magnitude and with such high wind velocities have not lasted more than four or five hours. On the mounting waves, the gale force winds, This is a list of people either killed or missing as a result of the Great Lakes Storm of 1913. Some ships had sought shelter along the coast in Michigan or along the Goderich to Point Edward coast but few survived the powerful north winds. It was the deadliest and most destructive natural disaster to ever hit the lakes. It was snowing hard and continued to snow without interruption until after she struck.”. By Saturday, the storm's status had been upgraded to "severe". On Monday morning, the storm had moved northeast of London, Ontario, dragging lake effect blizzards in its wake. Following the storm, ships on the Great Lakes were re-constructed to better withstand unruly weather. Generally, speaking when we think of cyclonic storms to cause catastrophic damage in … It was snowing hard and I could not see over a quarter of a mile.”. The result is commonly referred to as a "November gale" or "November witch." In November’s Fury, Michael Schumacher deftly interweaves the stories of the scores of ships sunk, grounded, or damaged by the freak November hurricane with the tragic stories of a cross-section of the more than 250 Great Lakes sailors that died or were forever psychologically scarred."  Milton Smith, an assistant engineer who decided at the last moment not to join his crew on premonition of disaster, aided in identifying any bodies that were found. This figure did not include financial losses in coastal cities.. After the final blizzards hit Cleveland, the city was paralyzed under feet of ice and snow and was without power for days. • The “White Hurricane” was the deadliest and most intense phase of the Great Storm of 1913 – Seiches cause short-term irregular lake level changes, killing people swept off beaches and … It crippled traffic on the lakes and throughout the Great Lakes basin region. Streetcar operators stayed with their stranded, powerless vehicles for two nights, eating whatever food was provided by local residents. Ship models from the Great Storm – and the earlier era of lake freighters on the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 was a hurricane-like gale which raged over five days, Nov 7-11 in 1913. 4. 7-10 November 1913 At least 258 lives lost on the Great Lakes. It had been traveling northward and began moving northwestward after passing over Washington, D.C. After the storm, meteorologists were required to have college-training, and the disaster also helped prove to the government that such crucial resources deserved more funding.  Northwesterly winds had reached gale strength on northern Lake Michigan and western Lake Superior, with winds of up to 60 mph (97 km/h) at Duluth, Minnesota. Determining the identity of this "mystery ship" became of regional interest, resulting in daily front-page newspaper articles. With modern forecasting, radar, and satellite imagery, such a storm would not have resulted in such destruction and loss of life today. “If ever there were a ‘perfect storm’ on the Great Lakes, it would be the one that pounded the lakes from November 7 through November 10, 1913, leaving a wake of destruction unlike anything ever seen on fresh water at any point in recorded history.” See Brown, 2002, pp. The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, historically referred to as the "Big Blow" the "Freshwater Fury," or the "White Hurricane," was a blizzard with hurricane-force winds that devastated the Great Lakes Basin in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada from November 7 through November 10, 1913. During autumn, cold, dry air moving south from northern Canada converges with warm, moist air moving north from the Gulf of Mexico, forming large storm systems in the middle of the continent. The northern states in America also send up a strong jet stream, which only exacerbates the forming storm and pushes the seething weather system towards the Great Lakes. Around midnight, the steamer Cornell, while 50 miles (80 km) west of Whitefish Point in Lake Superior, ran into a sudden northerly gale and was badly damaged. Though Cleveland had taken a terrible beating, other cities were reeling as well. As you remember and respect the power of our inland seas, learn 10 easy steps that you can take to protect the Great Lakes. Surrounding ports signaled it was a level-four storm, but for some vessels, it was already too late. The November 11 Plain Dealer described the aftermath: William H. Alexander, Cleveland's chief weather forecaster, observed: The greatest damage was done on the lakes. Each individual has hidden text which details all sources of information on that person. A false lull in the storm (a "sucker hole") allowed traffic to begin flowing again, both down the St. Marys River and up Lake Erie, and the Detroit and St. Clair rivers, into Lake Huron. The Plymouth sank in Lake Michigan and the LV-82 Buffalo succumbed to Lake Erie. The November storms of the Great Lakes have led to many disasters but none so devastating as the White Hurricane of 1913. This natural disaster known as the “Big Blow, “Freshwater Fury”, or “White Hurricane” took the lives of more than 250 people between Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Erie. Major shipwrecks occurred on all but Lake Ontario, with most happening on southern and western Lake Huron. From 1876 to 1900, 238 significant storms hit the Great Lakes. Ships on Lake Huron that were south of Alpena, Michigan—especially around Harbor Beach and Port Huron in Michigan and Goderich and Sarnia in Ontario—were battered with massive waves moving southward toward St. Clair River.  This included about $1 million at current value in lost cargo totalling about 68,300 tons, such as coal, iron ore, and grain.. Along southeastern Lake Erie, near the city of Erie, Pennsylvania, a southern low-pressure area was moving toward the lake. More than 250 people lost their lives in the storm, and there were major shipwrecks on all of the Great Lakes except Lake Ontario. A funeral procession with the bodies of five unidentified sailors in Goderich, Ontario | Institute for Great Lakes Research, Bowling Green State University (Wikimedia Commons: Two converging storm form the "November Gale" | SalomonCeb (Wikimedia Commons: The Charles S. Price, face down at the Lake Huron's southern end | Marine Museum of the Great Lakes at Kingston (Wikimedia Commons: Sailors from the Wexford on the beach near Goderich, Ontario | Institute for Great Lakes Research, Bowling Green State University (Wikimedia Commons: Map showing all the shipwrecks that happened during the storm | brian0918 (Wikimedia Commons: The LV-82 Buffalo in 1915 after it was raised | Shinerunner (Wikimedia Commons: Maitland Cemetery near Goderich, Ontario with the graves of 5 unknown sailors, killed in the storm | Institute for Great Lakes Research, BGSU. 44–67, for wind speeds and other figures for November 8. Barometric pressures in some areas began to rise, bringing hope of an end to the storm. 68–127, for wind speeds and other figures for November 9. Of the 45 most devastating storms over those years, November was the most common time for such storms to happen. While the boat was being lowered into the water, a breaking wave smashed it into the side of the ship. We still depend on the Great Lakes for survival today, but now we have the upperhand. The final ingredient in these ‘perfect storms’ is the (relatively) warm temperatures of the lakes themselves. Surrounding ports signaled it was a level-four storm, but for some vessels, it was already too late. The Wexford: Elusive Shipwreck of the 1913 Great Storm. The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 goes by multiple names, though it is historically referred to as the "Big Blow," the "Freshwater Fury," or the "White Hurricane." We held up until 9:00 A.M. when I saw we could not stay there much longer and have our hatches hold on, so I turned around and went before it again. The storm was most powerful on November 9, battering and overturning ships on four of the five Great Lakes, particularly Lake Huron. Halifax Explosion VS Great Lakes Storm Halifax Explosion In December 1917, almost 100 years ago, a French cargo ship (SS Mont-Blanc) filled with explosives collided with a Norwegian ship (SS Imo). 1913. 127–142, 163–180, for wind speeds and other figures for November 10 and November 11. The Great Storm of 1913 was easily the Great Lakes region's largest natural disaster ever. This image shows two storm tracks converging to become a November gale. The Great Lakes Storm, November 1913 By Frances Romero Wednesday, Feb. 02, 2011 Considered by the National Weather Service to be the most devastating blizzard to ever hit the Great Lakes — more than 235 people were killed and 18 ships wrecked — the November 1913 storm was caused by a mixture of Arctic air with a low-pressure system. Names with daggers () indicate confirmed deaths, while others were never found or of unknown status. (This was the first time in Great Lakes history that a fully loaded ore carrier had been capsized. By late afternoon, the storm signal flags were replaced with a vertical sequence of red, white, and red lanterns, indicating that a hurricane with winds over 74 mph (119 km/h) was coming. It was snowing hard and I could not see over a quarter of a mile.”. This resulted in the construction of ships with greater stability and more longitudinal strength. Deceptive lulls in the storm and the slow pace of weather reports contributed to the storm's destructiveness. See Brown, 2002, pp. The intense counterclockwise rotation of the low was made apparent by the changing wind directions around its center. , November 1913 storm at the Great Lakes of North America, Convergence of systems to form the November gale, Another storm called the "Big Blow" was on October 15, 1880, which sank. In total, 12 ships sank and at least 30 more were damaged. Three of the larger ships were found upside down, indicative of extremely high winds and tall waves. Complaints against the USDA Weather Bureau of alleged unpreparedness resulted in increased efforts to achieve more accurate weather forecasting and faster realization and communication of proper storm warnings. Since the mid-19th century over two dozen vicious cyclones have hit the Great Lakes, and the majority of them occurred in November.